Mayer is professor of psychology at the university of california, santa barbara, where he has served since 1975. The promise of multimedia learning is that, by combining pictures with words, we will be able to foster deeper learning in students. However, simply adding words to pictures is not an effective way to achieve multimedia learning. Implications for design principles, authorrichard e. Mayer and others published a cognitive theory of multimedia learning. Multimedia learning happens when we build mental representations from words and pictures. Recent advances in graphics technology and information technology have prompted new efforts to understand the potential of multimedia learning as a means of promoting human understanding. This foundation is important because it provides a starting point for decisions regarding how to design multimedia instruction.
Multimedia learning is a form of computeraided instruction that uses two modalities concurrently mayer, 2002. Characteristics of effective multimedia for teaching. Mayer is professor of psychology at the university of california, santa barbara, where he has served since. The cambridge handbook of multimedia learning constitutes the worlds.
Mayer, roxana moreno department of psychology, university of california, santa barbara, ca 93106, usa received 15 october 1999. Multimedia encyclopedias have become the latest addition to students reference tools, and the world wide web is full of messages that combine words and pictures. Beginning with cognitive load theory as their motivating scientific premise, researchers such as richard e. Paivios theory proposes two separate, though connected, memory systems in which people can encode information as language67. Supporting visual and verbal learning preferences in a. A generative model of multimedia learning mayer, 1997, p.
Although mayer s cognitive theory of multimedia learning draws on many theories, mayer s multimedia theory is specifically based on paivios dual coding theory which basically assumes that humans have separate information processing channels for verbal and. The cognitive theory of multimedia learning incorporates several principles based on these three assumptions mayer, 1997. Maximizing constructivist learning from multimedia. These effects are summarized below with relative practical. Multimedia learning an overview sciencedirect topics. One promising approach involves multimedia presentation of explanations in visual and verbal formats, such as presenting computergenerated animations synchronized with computergenerated. This seemingly simple proposition which can be called the multimedia learning hypothesis is the main focus of the cambridge handbook of multimedia learning1. Multimedia can be used in a variety of ways, such as integrating a powerpoint presentation to support the learning process and incorporating the four elements for effective multimedia learning mayer, 2003. According to a generative theory of multimedia learning mayer, 1997, active learning occurs when a learner engages three cognitive processesselecting relevant words for verbal processing and selecting relevant images for visual processing, organizing words into a coherent verbal model and organizing images into a coherent visual model. Many of these principles have been field tested in everyday learning. Mayers theory has been well supported in an extensive series of experiments with various materials mayer, 1997. Figure 2 summarizes the cognitive theory of multimedia learning, which is intended as a framework for explaining how multimedia learning works mayer, 2001.
Empirical multimedia results and applications mayer and his colleagues have conducted a decades worth of research investigating the nature and effects of multimedia presentations on human learning. Mayer university of california, santa barbara students viewed a computer animation depicting the process of lightning. The use of visual learning pictures, written text, animations, and videos and verbal learning spoken narration as discrete channels for delivering content is. In multimedia learning richard mayer explores ways of going beyond the purely verbal by combining words and pictures for effective teaching. Multimedia learning 3 as comptons interactive encyclopedia, grolier multimedia encyclopedia, and microsoft encarta.
An investigation of behaviorist and cognitive approaches. Mayer and roxana moreno, booktitlechi 1998, year1998 richard e. In multimedia learning, information is presented to learners in two or more formats, such as in words and in pictures mayer, 1997. Thus, cognitive psychological theories on processing information such as mayers 1997 generative theory of multimedia learning are relevant. Nine ways to reduce cognitive load in multimedia learning richard e. For example, figure 1 provides selected frames from a short animation depicting a causeandeffect explanation of how lightning forms along with corresponding onscreen text which provides the explanation in words. How can we help students to understand scientific explanations of causeandeffect systems, such as how a pump works, how the human respiratory system works, or how lightning storms develop. Mayer 1997 has embedded the fundamental mechanisms of dual coding theory into the working memory processes and the element of prior knowledge into longterm memory, thus including constructivist learning theory. Applying the multimedia principle to classroom slide presentations positively affects student learning. Mayers cognitive theory of multimedia learning presents the idea that the brain does not interpret a multimedia presentation of words, pictures, and auditory. In short, the promise of multimedia learning is that. Mayer department of psychology university of california, santa barbara. Imej article a learnercentered approach to multimedia.
In this second edition, mayer includes double the number of experimental. Multimedia learning is a cognitive theory of learning which has been popularized by the work of richard e. In the multimedia definition of brook 1997, on the other hand, the use of platforms like movies, slides. The design of multimedia interactive courseware for. You look up the term bicycle tire pump in an encyclopedia and find a passage that describes how a bicycle tire pump works. The theory has largely been defined by mayer s cognitive theory of multimedia learning. Applying the multimedia principle to classroom slide. We predict that, consistent with prior research, there will be an immediate learning benefit for undergraduate students. While mayers work provides some insight learning in instructional multimedia, he also acknowledges that technology is. First, multimedia instruction messages can be designed in ways that are consistent with how people learn, and thus can serve as aids to human learning mayer, 1997, 1999a, 1999b, 2001.
Using interactive multimedia in the teaching process is a growing phenomenon. Peoples learning outcomes were evaluated by means of multiple measures of understanding. In experiment 1, they concurrently viewed onscreen text presented near the animation or far from the. A corresponding example of a multimedia learning sce nario occurs in a textbookbased environment.
Nine ways to reduce cognitive load in multimedia learning. Although verbal learning offers a powerful tool, mayer explores ways of going beyond the purely verbal. Effect of the use of multimedia on students performance. Implications for design principles find, read and cite all the research you need on. Animation as an aid to multimedia learning richard e. According to mayer, 1997 multimedia is computer utilization in creating. Cognitive theory of multimedia learning mayer the principle known as the multimedia principle states that people learn more deeply from words and pictures than from words alone mayer, p. Kalyuga, 2011 or the cognitive theory of multimedia learning mayer, 2009, 2014 suggest that when learners use their limited processing resources on seductive details they are less likely to attend to the. On overview of the cognitive theory of multimedia learning. The overarching theme of this paper is that effective use of a new instructional technology must be guided by a researchbased theory of how students learn.
The case for minimizing irrelevant sounds in the design of multimedia instructional messages. A reasonable solution is to use instructional technology in ways that are grounded in researchbased theory. Multimedia is one of the learning media that utilizes a special device in the form of animation, image, text and audio khanif thoifatul maulidah et al. Benefits of emotional design in multimedia instruction. A cognitive theory of multimedia learning citeseerx. Mayer, john sweller, and roxana moreno established within the scientific literature a set of multimedia instructional design principles that promote effective learning. Mayer, julie heiser, and steve lonn university of california, santa barbara in 4 experiments, college students viewed an animation and listened to concurrent narration explaining the formation of lightning. Although verbal learning offers a powerful tool, this book explores ways of going beyond the purely verbal.
Cognitive theory of multimedia learning mayer learning. Multimedia encyclopedias have become the latest addition to students reference tools, and the world wide web is. A cognitive theory of multimedia learning based on three main assumptions. Anderson james lester paul chandler patricia mautone dorothy chun roxana moreno joan gallini jan plass stefan hagmann valerie sims shannon harp hiller spires julie heiser. Mayer 1997, 2001 applied cognitive load theory to the generative theory of multimedia learning. Splitattention, modality, and redundancy effects pelin yuksel arslan. Taking a new look at seductive details wiley online library. Mayer university of california, santa barbara abstract people can learn more deeply from words and pictures than from words alone.
Aids to computerbased multimedia learning richard e. Mayer1,3 and roxana moreno2 how can animation be used to promote learner understanding of scienti. Although how the teacher chooses to facilitate the technology is more important than the technology itself. According to mayer 2001, multimedia is the multiple introduction of a material with picture or text. We begin with a cognitive theory of multimedia learning mayer, 1997, as outlined in. The role of modality and contiguity roxana moreno and richard e.1335 638 255 1647 1029 1356 507 37 1212 1536 1062 449 988 261 618 1193 352 388 978 279 87 588 1589 544 498 995 646 1357 363 42 196 927 1005 520 1201 25 1190 1265 585 1413